Spliterator - JRE Emulation | JRE Emulation
public interface

Spliterator

java.util.Spliterator<T>
Known Indirect Subclasses

Class Overview

An object for traversing and partitioning elements of a source. The source of elements covered by a Spliterator could be, for example, an array, a Collection, an IO channel, or a generator function.

A Spliterator may traverse elements individually (tryAdvance()) or sequentially in bulk (forEachRemaining()).

A Spliterator may also partition off some of its elements (using trySplit()) as another Spliterator, to be used in possibly-parallel operations. Operations using a Spliterator that cannot split, or does so in a highly imbalanced or inefficient manner, are unlikely to benefit from parallelism. Traversal and splitting exhaust elements; each Spliterator is useful for only a single bulk computation.

A Spliterator also reports a set of characteristics() of its structure, source, and elements from among ORDERED, DISTINCT, SORTED, SIZED, NONNULL, IMMUTABLE, CONCURRENT, and SUBSIZED. These may be employed by Spliterator clients to control, specialize or simplify computation. For example, a Spliterator for a Collection would report SIZED, a Spliterator for a Set would report DISTINCT, and a Spliterator for a SortedSet would also report SORTED. Characteristics are reported as a simple unioned bit set. Some characteristics additionally constrain method behavior; for example if ORDERED, traversal methods must conform to their documented ordering. New characteristics may be defined in the future, so implementors should not assign meanings to unlisted values.

A Spliterator that does not report IMMUTABLE or CONCURRENT is expected to have a documented policy concerning: when the spliterator binds to the element source; and detection of structural interference of the element source detected after binding. A late-binding Spliterator binds to the source of elements at the point of first traversal, first split, or first query for estimated size, rather than at the time the Spliterator is created. A Spliterator that is not late-binding binds to the source of elements at the point of construction or first invocation of any method. Modifications made to the source prior to binding are reflected when the Spliterator is traversed. After binding a Spliterator should, on a best-effort basis, throw ConcurrentModificationException if structural interference is detected. Spliterators that do this are called fail-fast. The bulk traversal method (forEachRemaining()) of a Spliterator may optimize traversal and check for structural interference after all elements have been traversed, rather than checking per-element and failing immediately.

Spliterators can provide an estimate of the number of remaining elements via the estimateSize() method. Ideally, as reflected in characteristic SIZED, this value corresponds exactly to the number of elements that would be encountered in a successful traversal. However, even when not exactly known, an estimated value value may still be useful to operations being performed on the source, such as helping to determine whether it is preferable to split further or traverse the remaining elements sequentially.

Despite their obvious utility in parallel algorithms, spliterators are not expected to be thread-safe; instead, implementations of parallel algorithms using spliterators should ensure that the spliterator is only used by one thread at a time. This is generally easy to attain via serial thread-confinement, which often is a natural consequence of typical parallel algorithms that work by recursive decomposition. A thread calling trySplit() may hand over the returned Spliterator to another thread, which in turn may traverse or further split that Spliterator. The behaviour of splitting and traversal is undefined if two or more threads operate concurrently on the same spliterator. If the original thread hands a spliterator off to another thread for processing, it is best if that handoff occurs before any elements are consumed with tryAdvance(), as certain guarantees (such as the accuracy of estimateSize() for SIZED spliterators) are only valid before traversal has begun.

Primitive subtype specializations of Spliterator are provided for int, long, and double values. The subtype default implementations of tryAdvance(java.util.function.Consumer) and forEachRemaining(java.util.function.Consumer) box primitive values to instances of their corresponding wrapper class. Such boxing may undermine any performance advantages gained by using the primitive specializations. To avoid boxing, the corresponding primitive-based methods should be used. For example, tryAdvance(java.util.function.IntConsumer) and forEachRemaining(java.util.function.IntConsumer) should be used in preference to tryAdvance(java.util.function.Consumer) and forEachRemaining(java.util.function.Consumer). Traversal of primitive values using boxing-based methods tryAdvance() and forEachRemaining() does not affect the order in which the values, transformed to boxed values, are encountered.

See Also

Summary

Nested Classes
interface Spliterator.OfDouble A Spliterator specialized for double values. 
interface Spliterator.OfInt A Spliterator specialized for int values. 
interface Spliterator.OfLong A Spliterator specialized for long values. 
interface Spliterator.OfPrimitive<T, T_CONS, T_SPLITR extends OfPrimitive<T, T_CONS, T_SPLITR>> A Spliterator specialized for primitive values. 
Constants
int CONCURRENT Characteristic value signifying that the element source may be safely concurrently modified (allowing additions, replacements, and/or removals) by multiple threads without external synchronization.
int DISTINCT Characteristic value signifying that, for each pair of encountered elements x, y, !x.equals(y).
int IMMUTABLE Characteristic value signifying that the element source cannot be structurally modified; that is, elements cannot be added, replaced, or removed, so such changes cannot occur during traversal.
int NONNULL Characteristic value signifying that the source guarantees that encountered elements will not be null.
int ORDERED Characteristic value signifying that an encounter order is defined for elements.
int SIZED Characteristic value signifying that the value returned from estimateSize() prior to traversal or splitting represents a finite size that, in the absence of structural source modification, represents an exact count of the number of elements that would be encountered by a complete traversal.
int SORTED Characteristic value signifying that encounter order follows a defined sort order.
int SUBSIZED Characteristic value signifying that all Spliterators resulting from trySplit() will be both SIZED and SUBSIZED.
Public Methods
abstract int characteristics()
Returns a set of characteristics of this Spliterator and its elements.
abstract long estimateSize()
Returns an estimate of the number of elements that would be encountered by a forEachRemaining(Consumer) traversal, or returns MAX_VALUE if infinite, unknown, or too expensive to compute.
abstract void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super T> action)
Performs the given action for each remaining element, sequentially in the current thread, until all elements have been processed or the action throws an exception.
abstract Comparator<? super T> getComparator()
If this Spliterator's source is SORTED by a Comparator, returns that Comparator.
abstract long getExactSizeIfKnown()
Convenience method that returns estimateSize() if this Spliterator is SIZED, else -1.
abstract boolean hasCharacteristics(int characteristics)
Returns true if this Spliterator's characteristics() contain all of the given characteristics.
abstract boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super T> action)
If a remaining element exists, performs the given action on it, returning true; else returns false.
abstract Spliterator<T> trySplit()
If this spliterator can be partitioned, returns a Spliterator covering elements, that will, upon return from this method, not be covered by this Spliterator.

Constants

public static final int CONCURRENT

Characteristic value signifying that the element source may be safely concurrently modified (allowing additions, replacements, and/or removals) by multiple threads without external synchronization. If so, the Spliterator is expected to have a documented policy concerning the impact of modifications during traversal.

A top-level Spliterator should not report both CONCURRENT and SIZED, since the finite size, if known, may change if the source is concurrently modified during traversal. Such a Spliterator is inconsistent and no guarantees can be made about any computation using that Spliterator. Sub-spliterators may report SIZED if the sub-split size is known and additions or removals to the source are not reflected when traversing.

Constant Value: 4096 (0x00001000)

public static final int DISTINCT

Characteristic value signifying that, for each pair of encountered elements x, y, !x.equals(y). This applies for example, to a Spliterator based on a Set.

Constant Value: 1 (0x00000001)

public static final int IMMUTABLE

Characteristic value signifying that the element source cannot be structurally modified; that is, elements cannot be added, replaced, or removed, so such changes cannot occur during traversal. A Spliterator that does not report IMMUTABLE or CONCURRENT is expected to have a documented policy (for example throwing ConcurrentModificationException) concerning structural interference detected during traversal.

Constant Value: 1024 (0x00000400)

public static final int NONNULL

Characteristic value signifying that the source guarantees that encountered elements will not be null. (This applies, for example, to most concurrent collections, queues, and maps.)

Constant Value: 256 (0x00000100)

public static final int ORDERED

Characteristic value signifying that an encounter order is defined for elements. If so, this Spliterator guarantees that method trySplit() splits a strict prefix of elements, that method tryAdvance(Consumer) steps by one element in prefix order, and that forEachRemaining(Consumer) performs actions in encounter order.

A Collection has an encounter order if the corresponding iterator() documents an order. If so, the encounter order is the same as the documented order. Otherwise, a collection does not have an encounter order.

Constant Value: 16 (0x00000010)

public static final int SIZED

Characteristic value signifying that the value returned from estimateSize() prior to traversal or splitting represents a finite size that, in the absence of structural source modification, represents an exact count of the number of elements that would be encountered by a complete traversal.

Constant Value: 64 (0x00000040)

public static final int SORTED

Characteristic value signifying that encounter order follows a defined sort order. If so, method getComparator() returns the associated Comparator, or null if all elements are Comparable and are sorted by their natural ordering.

A Spliterator that reports SORTED must also report ORDERED.

Constant Value: 4 (0x00000004)

public static final int SUBSIZED

Characteristic value signifying that all Spliterators resulting from trySplit() will be both SIZED and SUBSIZED. (This means that all child Spliterators, whether direct or indirect, will be SIZED.)

A Spliterator that does not report SIZED as required by SUBSIZED is inconsistent and no guarantees can be made about any computation using that Spliterator.

Constant Value: 16384 (0x00004000)

Public Methods

public abstract int characteristics ()

Returns a set of characteristics of this Spliterator and its elements. The result is represented as ORed values from ORDERED, DISTINCT, SORTED, SIZED, NONNULL, IMMUTABLE, CONCURRENT, SUBSIZED. Repeated calls to characteristics() on a given spliterator, prior to or in-between calls to trySplit, should always return the same result.

If a Spliterator reports an inconsistent set of characteristics (either those returned from a single invocation or across multiple invocations), no guarantees can be made about any computation using this Spliterator.

Returns
  • a representation of characteristics

public abstract long estimateSize ()

Returns an estimate of the number of elements that would be encountered by a forEachRemaining(Consumer) traversal, or returns MAX_VALUE if infinite, unknown, or too expensive to compute.

If this Spliterator is SIZED and has not yet been partially traversed or split, or this Spliterator is SUBSIZED and has not yet been partially traversed, this estimate must be an accurate count of elements that would be encountered by a complete traversal. Otherwise, this estimate may be arbitrarily inaccurate, but must decrease as specified across invocations of trySplit().

Returns
  • the estimated size, or Long.MAX_VALUE if infinite, unknown, or too expensive to compute.

public abstract void forEachRemaining (Consumer<? super T> action)

Performs the given action for each remaining element, sequentially in the current thread, until all elements have been processed or the action throws an exception. If this Spliterator is ORDERED, actions are performed in encounter order. Exceptions thrown by the action are relayed to the caller.

Parameters
action The action
Throws
NullPointerException if the specified action is null

public abstract Comparator<? super T> getComparator ()

If this Spliterator's source is SORTED by a Comparator, returns that Comparator. If the source is SORTED in {@linkplain Comparable natural order}, returns null. Otherwise, if the source is not SORTED, throws IllegalStateException.

Returns
  • a Comparator, or null if the elements are sorted in the natural order.
Throws
IllegalStateException if the spliterator does not report a characteristic of SORTED.

public abstract long getExactSizeIfKnown ()

Convenience method that returns estimateSize() if this Spliterator is SIZED, else -1.

Returns
  • the exact size, if known, else -1.

public abstract boolean hasCharacteristics (int characteristics)

Returns true if this Spliterator's characteristics() contain all of the given characteristics.

Parameters
characteristics the characteristics to check for
Returns
  • true if all the specified characteristics are present, else false

public abstract boolean tryAdvance (Consumer<? super T> action)

If a remaining element exists, performs the given action on it, returning true; else returns false. If this Spliterator is ORDERED the action is performed on the next element in encounter order. Exceptions thrown by the action are relayed to the caller.

Parameters
action The action
Returns
  • false if no remaining elements existed upon entry to this method, else true.
Throws
NullPointerException if the specified action is null

public abstract Spliterator<T> trySplit ()

If this spliterator can be partitioned, returns a Spliterator covering elements, that will, upon return from this method, not be covered by this Spliterator.

If this Spliterator is ORDERED, the returned Spliterator must cover a strict prefix of the elements.

Unless this Spliterator covers an infinite number of elements, repeated calls to trySplit() must eventually return null. Upon non-null return:

  • the value reported for estimateSize() before splitting, must, after splitting, be greater than or equal to estimateSize() for this and the returned Spliterator; and
  • if this Spliterator is SUBSIZED, then estimateSize() for this spliterator before splitting must be equal to the sum of estimateSize() for this and the returned Spliterator after splitting.

This method may return null for any reason, including emptiness, inability to split after traversal has commenced, data structure constraints, and efficiency considerations.

Returns
  • a Spliterator covering some portion of the elements, or null if this spliterator cannot be split