Stream - JRE Emulation | JRE Emulation
public interface

Stream

implements BaseStream<T, Stream<T>>
java.util.stream.Stream<T>

Class Overview

A sequence of elements supporting sequential and parallel aggregate operations. The following example illustrates an aggregate operation using Stream and IntStream:

int sum = widgets.stream()
                      .filter(w -> w.getColor() == RED)
                      .mapToInt(w -> w.getWeight())
                      .sum();
 
In this example, widgets is a Collection<Widget>. We create a stream of Widget objects via Collection.stream(), filter it to produce a stream containing only the red widgets, and then transform it into a stream of int values representing the weight of each red widget. Then this stream is summed to produce a total weight.

In addition to Stream, which is a stream of object references, there are primitive specializations for IntStream, LongStream, and DoubleStream, all of which are referred to as "streams" and conform to the characteristics and restrictions described here.

To perform a computation, stream operations are composed into a stream pipeline. A stream pipeline consists of a source (which might be an array, a collection, a generator function, an I/O channel, etc), zero or more intermediate operations (which transform a stream into another stream, such as filter(Predicate)), and a terminal operation (which produces a result or side-effect, such as count() or forEach(Consumer)). Streams are lazy; computation on the source data is only performed when the terminal operation is initiated, and source elements are consumed only as needed.

Collections and streams, while bearing some superficial similarities, have different goals. Collections are primarily concerned with the efficient management of, and access to, their elements. By contrast, streams do not provide a means to directly access or manipulate their elements, and are instead concerned with declaratively describing their source and the computational operations which will be performed in aggregate on that source. However, if the provided stream operations do not offer the desired functionality, the iterator() and spliterator() operations can be used to perform a controlled traversal.

A stream pipeline, like the "widgets" example above, can be viewed as a query on the stream source. Unless the source was explicitly designed for concurrent modification (such as a ConcurrentHashMap), unpredictable or erroneous behavior may result from modifying the stream source while it is being queried.

Most stream operations accept parameters that describe user-specified behavior, such as the lambda expression w -> w.getWeight() passed to mapToInt in the example above. To preserve correct behavior, these behavioral parameters:

  • must be non-interfering (they do not modify the stream source); and
  • in most cases must be stateless (their result should not depend on any state that might change during execution of the stream pipeline).

Such parameters are always instances of a functional interface such as Function, and are often lambda expressions or method references. Unless otherwise specified these parameters must be non-null.

A stream should be operated on (invoking an intermediate or terminal stream operation) only once. This rules out, for example, "forked" streams, where the same source feeds two or more pipelines, or multiple traversals of the same stream. A stream implementation may throw IllegalStateException if it detects that the stream is being reused. However, since some stream operations may return their receiver rather than a new stream object, it may not be possible to detect reuse in all cases.

Streams have a close() method and implement AutoCloseable, but nearly all stream instances do not actually need to be closed after use. Generally, only streams whose source is an IO channel will require closing. Most streams are backed by collections, arrays, or generating functions, which require no special resource management. (If a stream does require closing, it can be declared as a resource in a try-with-resources statement.)

Stream pipelines may execute either sequentially or in parallel. This execution mode is a property of the stream. Streams are created with an initial choice of sequential or parallel execution. (For example, Collection.stream() creates a sequential stream, and Collection.parallelStream() creates a parallel one.) This choice of execution mode may be modified by the sequential() or parallel() methods, and may be queried with the isParallel() method.

Summary

Nested Classes
interface Stream.Builder<T> A mutable builder for a Stream
Public Methods
abstract boolean allMatch(Predicate<? super T> predicate)
Returns whether all elements of this stream match the provided predicate.
abstract boolean anyMatch(Predicate<? super T> predicate)
Returns whether any elements of this stream match the provided predicate.
abstract static <T> Builder<T> builder()
Returns a builder for a Stream.
abstract <R, A> R collect(Collector<? super T, A, R> collector)
Performs a mutable reduction operation on the elements of this stream using a Collector.
abstract <R> R collect(Supplier<R> supplier, BiConsumer<R, ? super T> accumulator, BiConsumer<R, R> combiner)
Performs a mutable reduction operation on the elements of this stream.
abstract static <T> Stream<T> concat(Stream<? extends T> a, Stream<? extends T> b)
Creates a lazily concatenated stream whose elements are all the elements of the first stream followed by all the elements of the second stream.
abstract long count()
Returns the count of elements in this stream.
abstract Stream<T> distinct()
Returns a stream consisting of the distinct elements (according to equals(Object)) of this stream.
abstract static <T> Stream<T> empty()
Returns an empty sequential Stream.
abstract Stream<T> filter(Predicate<? super T> predicate)
Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream that match the given predicate.
abstract Optional<T> findAny()
Returns an Optional describing some element of the stream, or an empty Optional if the stream is empty.
abstract Optional<T> findFirst()
Returns an Optional describing the first element of this stream, or an empty Optional if the stream is empty.
abstract <R> Stream<R> flatMap(Function<? super T, ? extends Stream<? extends R>> mapper)
Returns a stream consisting of the results of replacing each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying the provided mapping function to each element.
abstract DoubleStream flatMapToDouble(Function<? super T, ? extends DoubleStream> mapper)
Returns an DoubleStream consisting of the results of replacing each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying the provided mapping function to each element.
abstract IntStream flatMapToInt(Function<? super T, ? extends IntStream> mapper)
Returns an IntStream consisting of the results of replacing each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying the provided mapping function to each element.
abstract LongStream flatMapToLong(Function<? super T, ? extends LongStream> mapper)
Returns an LongStream consisting of the results of replacing each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying the provided mapping function to each element.
abstract void forEach(Consumer<? super T> action)
Performs an action for each element of this stream.
abstract void forEachOrdered(Consumer<? super T> action)
Performs an action for each element of this stream, in the encounter order of the stream if the stream has a defined encounter order.
abstract static <T> Stream<T> generate(Supplier<T> s)
Returns an infinite sequential unordered stream where each element is generated by the provided Supplier.
abstract static <T> Stream<T> iterate(T seed, UnaryOperator<T> f)
Returns an infinite sequential ordered Stream produced by iterative application of a function f to an initial element seed, producing a Stream consisting of seed, f(seed), f(f(seed)), etc.
abstract Stream<T> limit(long maxSize)
Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, truncated to be no longer than maxSize in length.
abstract <R> Stream<R> map(Function<? super T, ? extends R> mapper)
Returns a stream consisting of the results of applying the given function to the elements of this stream.
abstract DoubleStream mapToDouble(ToDoubleFunction<? super T> mapper)
Returns a DoubleStream consisting of the results of applying the given function to the elements of this stream.
abstract IntStream mapToInt(ToIntFunction<? super T> mapper)
Returns an IntStream consisting of the results of applying the given function to the elements of this stream.
abstract LongStream mapToLong(ToLongFunction<? super T> mapper)
Returns a LongStream consisting of the results of applying the given function to the elements of this stream.
abstract Optional<T> max(Comparator<? super T> comparator)
Returns the maximum element of this stream according to the provided Comparator.
abstract Optional<T> min(Comparator<? super T> comparator)
Returns the minimum element of this stream according to the provided Comparator.
abstract boolean noneMatch(Predicate<? super T> predicate)
Returns whether no elements of this stream match the provided predicate.
abstract static <T> Stream<T> of(T t)
Returns a sequential Stream containing a single element.
abstract static <T> Stream<T> of(T... values)
Returns a sequential ordered stream whose elements are the specified values.
abstract Stream<T> peek(Consumer<? super T> action)
Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, additionally performing the provided action on each element as elements are consumed from the resulting stream.
abstract T reduce(T identity, BinaryOperator<T> accumulator)
Performs a reduction on the elements of this stream, using the provided identity value and an associative accumulation function, and returns the reduced value.
abstract Optional<T> reduce(BinaryOperator<T> accumulator)
Performs a reduction on the elements of this stream, using an associative accumulation function, and returns an Optional describing the reduced value, if any.
abstract <U> U reduce(U identity, BiFunction<U, ? super T, U> accumulator, BinaryOperator<U> combiner)
Performs a reduction on the elements of this stream, using the provided identity, accumulation and combining functions.
abstract Stream<T> skip(long n)
Returns a stream consisting of the remaining elements of this stream after discarding the first n elements of the stream.
abstract Stream<T> sorted(Comparator<? super T> comparator)
Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, sorted according to the provided Comparator.
abstract Stream<T> sorted()
Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, sorted according to natural order.
abstract Object[] toArray()
Returns an array containing the elements of this stream.
abstract <A> A[] toArray(IntFunction<A[]> generator)
Returns an array containing the elements of this stream, using the provided generator function to allocate the returned array, as well as any additional arrays that might be required for a partitioned execution or for resizing.
Inherited Methods
[Expand]
From interface java.util.stream.BaseStream
From interface java.lang.AutoCloseable

Public Methods

public abstract boolean allMatch (Predicate<? super T> predicate)

Returns whether all elements of this stream match the provided predicate. May not evaluate the predicate on all elements if not necessary for determining the result. If the stream is empty then true is returned and the predicate is not evaluated.

This is a short-circuiting terminal operation.

Parameters
predicate a non-interfering, stateless predicate to apply to elements of this stream
Returns
  • true if either all elements of the stream match the provided predicate or the stream is empty, otherwise false

public abstract boolean anyMatch (Predicate<? super T> predicate)

Returns whether any elements of this stream match the provided predicate. May not evaluate the predicate on all elements if not necessary for determining the result. If the stream is empty then false is returned and the predicate is not evaluated.

This is a short-circuiting terminal operation.

Parameters
predicate a non-interfering, stateless predicate to apply to elements of this stream
Returns
  • true if any elements of the stream match the provided predicate, otherwise false

public static abstract Builder<T> builder ()

Returns a builder for a Stream.

Returns
  • a stream builder

public abstract R collect (Collector<? super T, A, R> collector)

Performs a mutable reduction operation on the elements of this stream using a Collector. A Collector encapsulates the functions used as arguments to collect(Supplier, BiConsumer, BiConsumer), allowing for reuse of collection strategies and composition of collect operations such as multiple-level grouping or partitioning.

If the stream is parallel, and the Collector is concurrent, and either the stream is unordered or the collector is unordered, then a concurrent reduction will be performed (see Collector for details on concurrent reduction.)

This is a terminal operation.

When executed in parallel, multiple intermediate results may be instantiated, populated, and merged so as to maintain isolation of mutable data structures. Therefore, even when executed in parallel with non-thread-safe data structures (such as ArrayList), no additional synchronization is needed for a parallel reduction.

Parameters
collector the Collector describing the reduction
Returns
  • the result of the reduction

public abstract R collect (Supplier<R> supplier, BiConsumer<R, ? super T> accumulator, BiConsumer<R, R> combiner)

Performs a mutable reduction operation on the elements of this stream. A mutable reduction is one in which the reduced value is a mutable result container, such as an ArrayList, and elements are incorporated by updating the state of the result rather than by replacing the result. This produces a result equivalent to:

R result = supplier.get();
     for (T element : this stream)
         accumulator.accept(result, element);
     return result;
 

Like reduce(Object, BinaryOperator), collect operations can be parallelized without requiring additional synchronization.

This is a terminal operation.

Parameters
supplier a function that creates a new result container. For a parallel execution, this function may be called multiple times and must return a fresh value each time.
accumulator an associative, non-interfering, stateless function for incorporating an additional element into a result
combiner an associative, non-interfering, stateless function for combining two values, which must be compatible with the accumulator function
Returns
  • the result of the reduction

public static abstract Stream<T> concat (Stream<? extends T> a, Stream<? extends T> b)

Creates a lazily concatenated stream whose elements are all the elements of the first stream followed by all the elements of the second stream. The resulting stream is ordered if both of the input streams are ordered, and parallel if either of the input streams is parallel. When the resulting stream is closed, the close handlers for both input streams are invoked.

Parameters
a the first stream
b the second stream
Returns
  • the concatenation of the two input streams

public abstract long count ()

Returns the count of elements in this stream. This is a special case of a reduction and is equivalent to:

return mapToLong(e -> 1L).sum();
 

This is a terminal operation.

Returns
  • the count of elements in this stream

public abstract Stream<T> distinct ()

Returns a stream consisting of the distinct elements (according to equals(Object)) of this stream.

For ordered streams, the selection of distinct elements is stable (for duplicated elements, the element appearing first in the encounter order is preserved.) For unordered streams, no stability guarantees are made.

This is a stateful intermediate operation.

Returns
  • the new stream

public static abstract Stream<T> empty ()

Returns an empty sequential Stream.

Returns
  • an empty sequential stream

public abstract Stream<T> filter (Predicate<? super T> predicate)

Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream that match the given predicate.

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
predicate a non-interfering, stateless predicate to apply to each element to determine if it should be included
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract Optional<T> findAny ()

Returns an Optional describing some element of the stream, or an empty Optional if the stream is empty.

This is a short-circuiting terminal operation.

The behavior of this operation is explicitly nondeterministic; it is free to select any element in the stream. This is to allow for maximal performance in parallel operations; the cost is that multiple invocations on the same source may not return the same result. (If a stable result is desired, use findFirst() instead.)

Returns
  • an Optional describing some element of this stream, or an empty Optional if the stream is empty
Throws
NullPointerException if the element selected is null
See Also

public abstract Optional<T> findFirst ()

Returns an Optional describing the first element of this stream, or an empty Optional if the stream is empty. If the stream has no encounter order, then any element may be returned.

This is a short-circuiting terminal operation.

Returns
  • an Optional describing the first element of this stream, or an empty Optional if the stream is empty
Throws
NullPointerException if the element selected is null

public abstract Stream<R> flatMap (Function<? super T, ? extends Stream<? extends R>> mapper)

Returns a stream consisting of the results of replacing each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying the provided mapping function to each element. Each mapped stream is closed after its contents have been placed into this stream. (If a mapped stream is null an empty stream is used, instead.)

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
mapper a non-interfering, stateless function to apply to each element which produces a stream of new values
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract DoubleStream flatMapToDouble (Function<? super T, ? extends DoubleStream> mapper)

Returns an DoubleStream consisting of the results of replacing each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying the provided mapping function to each element. Each mapped stream is closed after its contents have placed been into this stream. (If a mapped stream is null an empty stream is used, instead.)

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
mapper a non-interfering, stateless function to apply to each element which produces a stream of new values
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract IntStream flatMapToInt (Function<? super T, ? extends IntStream> mapper)

Returns an IntStream consisting of the results of replacing each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying the provided mapping function to each element. Each mapped stream is closed after its contents have been placed into this stream. (If a mapped stream is null an empty stream is used, instead.)

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
mapper a non-interfering, stateless function to apply to each element which produces a stream of new values
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract LongStream flatMapToLong (Function<? super T, ? extends LongStream> mapper)

Returns an LongStream consisting of the results of replacing each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying the provided mapping function to each element. Each mapped stream is closed after its contents have been placed into this stream. (If a mapped stream is null an empty stream is used, instead.)

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
mapper a non-interfering, stateless function to apply to each element which produces a stream of new values
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract void forEach (Consumer<? super T> action)

Performs an action for each element of this stream.

This is a terminal operation.

The behavior of this operation is explicitly nondeterministic. For parallel stream pipelines, this operation does not guarantee to respect the encounter order of the stream, as doing so would sacrifice the benefit of parallelism. For any given element, the action may be performed at whatever time and in whatever thread the library chooses. If the action accesses shared state, it is responsible for providing the required synchronization.

Parameters
action a non-interfering action to perform on the elements

public abstract void forEachOrdered (Consumer<? super T> action)

Performs an action for each element of this stream, in the encounter order of the stream if the stream has a defined encounter order.

This is a terminal operation.

This operation processes the elements one at a time, in encounter order if one exists. Performing the action for one element happens-before performing the action for subsequent elements, but for any given element, the action may be performed in whatever thread the library chooses.

Parameters
action a non-interfering action to perform on the elements

public static abstract Stream<T> generate (Supplier<T> s)

Returns an infinite sequential unordered stream where each element is generated by the provided Supplier. This is suitable for generating constant streams, streams of random elements, etc.

Parameters
s the Supplier of generated elements
Returns
  • a new infinite sequential unordered Stream

public static abstract Stream<T> iterate (T seed, UnaryOperator<T> f)

Returns an infinite sequential ordered Stream produced by iterative application of a function f to an initial element seed, producing a Stream consisting of seed, f(seed), f(f(seed)), etc.

The first element (position 0) in the Stream will be the provided seed. For n > 0, the element at position n, will be the result of applying the function f to the element at position n - 1.

Parameters
seed the initial element
f a function to be applied to to the previous element to produce a new element
Returns
  • a new sequential Stream

public abstract Stream<T> limit (long maxSize)

Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, truncated to be no longer than maxSize in length.

This is a short-circuiting stateful intermediate operation.

Parameters
maxSize the number of elements the stream should be limited to
Returns
  • the new stream
Throws
IllegalArgumentException if maxSize is negative

public abstract Stream<R> map (Function<? super T, ? extends R> mapper)

Returns a stream consisting of the results of applying the given function to the elements of this stream.

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
mapper a non-interfering, stateless function to apply to each element
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract DoubleStream mapToDouble (ToDoubleFunction<? super T> mapper)

Returns a DoubleStream consisting of the results of applying the given function to the elements of this stream.

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
mapper a non-interfering, stateless function to apply to each element
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract IntStream mapToInt (ToIntFunction<? super T> mapper)

Returns an IntStream consisting of the results of applying the given function to the elements of this stream.

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
mapper a non-interfering, stateless function to apply to each element
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract LongStream mapToLong (ToLongFunction<? super T> mapper)

Returns a LongStream consisting of the results of applying the given function to the elements of this stream.

This is an intermediate operation.

Parameters
mapper a non-interfering, stateless function to apply to each element
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract Optional<T> max (Comparator<? super T> comparator)

Returns the maximum element of this stream according to the provided Comparator. This is a special case of a reduction.

This is a terminal operation.

Parameters
comparator a non-interfering, stateless Comparator to compare elements of this stream
Returns
  • an Optional describing the maximum element of this stream, or an empty Optional if the stream is empty
Throws
NullPointerException if the maximum element is null

public abstract Optional<T> min (Comparator<? super T> comparator)

Returns the minimum element of this stream according to the provided Comparator. This is a special case of a reduction.

This is a terminal operation.

Parameters
comparator a non-interfering, stateless Comparator to compare elements of this stream
Returns
  • an Optional describing the minimum element of this stream, or an empty Optional if the stream is empty
Throws
NullPointerException if the minimum element is null

public abstract boolean noneMatch (Predicate<? super T> predicate)

Returns whether no elements of this stream match the provided predicate. May not evaluate the predicate on all elements if not necessary for determining the result. If the stream is empty then true is returned and the predicate is not evaluated.

This is a short-circuiting terminal operation.

Parameters
predicate a non-interfering, stateless predicate to apply to elements of this stream
Returns
  • true if either no elements of the stream match the provided predicate or the stream is empty, otherwise false

public static abstract Stream<T> of (T t)

Returns a sequential Stream containing a single element.

Parameters
t the single element
Returns
  • a singleton sequential stream

public static abstract Stream<T> of (T... values)

Returns a sequential ordered stream whose elements are the specified values.

Parameters
values the elements of the new stream
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract Stream<T> peek (Consumer<? super T> action)

Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, additionally performing the provided action on each element as elements are consumed from the resulting stream.

This is an intermediate operation.

For parallel stream pipelines, the action may be called at whatever time and in whatever thread the element is made available by the upstream operation. If the action modifies shared state, it is responsible for providing the required synchronization.

Parameters
action a non-interfering action to perform on the elements as they are consumed from the stream
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract T reduce (T identity, BinaryOperator<T> accumulator)

Performs a reduction on the elements of this stream, using the provided identity value and an associative accumulation function, and returns the reduced value. This is equivalent to:

T result = identity;
     for (T element : this stream)
         result = accumulator.apply(result, element)
     return result;
 
but is not constrained to execute sequentially.

The identity value must be an identity for the accumulator function. This means that for all t, accumulator.apply(identity, t) is equal to t. The accumulator function must be an associative function.

This is a terminal operation.

Parameters
identity the identity value for the accumulating function
accumulator an associative, non-interfering, stateless function for combining two values
Returns
  • the result of the reduction

public abstract Optional<T> reduce (BinaryOperator<T> accumulator)

Performs a reduction on the elements of this stream, using an associative accumulation function, and returns an Optional describing the reduced value, if any. This is equivalent to:

boolean foundAny = false;
     T result = null;
     for (T element : this stream) {
         if (!foundAny) {
             foundAny = true;
             result = element;
         }
         else
             result = accumulator.apply(result, element);
     }
     return foundAny ? Optional.of(result) : Optional.empty();
 
but is not constrained to execute sequentially.

The accumulator function must be an associative function.

This is a terminal operation.

Parameters
accumulator an associative, non-interfering, stateless function for combining two values
Returns
  • an Optional describing the result of the reduction
Throws
NullPointerException if the result of the reduction is null

public abstract U reduce (U identity, BiFunction<U, ? super T, U> accumulator, BinaryOperator<U> combiner)

Performs a reduction on the elements of this stream, using the provided identity, accumulation and combining functions. This is equivalent to:

U result = identity;
     for (T element : this stream)
         result = accumulator.apply(result, element)
     return result;
 
but is not constrained to execute sequentially.

The identity value must be an identity for the combiner function. This means that for all u, combiner(identity, u) is equal to u. Additionally, the combiner function must be compatible with the accumulator function; for all u and t, the following must hold:

combiner.apply(u, accumulator.apply(identity, t)) == accumulator.apply(u, t)
 

This is a terminal operation.

Parameters
identity the identity value for the combiner function
accumulator an associative, non-interfering, stateless function for incorporating an additional element into a result
combiner an associative, non-interfering, stateless function for combining two values, which must be compatible with the accumulator function
Returns
  • the result of the reduction

public abstract Stream<T> skip (long n)

Returns a stream consisting of the remaining elements of this stream after discarding the first n elements of the stream. If this stream contains fewer than n elements then an empty stream will be returned.

This is a stateful intermediate operation.

Parameters
n the number of leading elements to skip
Returns
  • the new stream
Throws
IllegalArgumentException if n is negative

public abstract Stream<T> sorted (Comparator<? super T> comparator)

Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, sorted according to the provided Comparator.

For ordered streams, the sort is stable. For unordered streams, no stability guarantees are made.

This is a stateful intermediate operation.

Parameters
comparator a non-interfering, stateless Comparator to be used to compare stream elements
Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract Stream<T> sorted ()

Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, sorted according to natural order. If the elements of this stream are not Comparable, a java.lang.ClassCastException may be thrown when the terminal operation is executed.

For ordered streams, the sort is stable. For unordered streams, no stability guarantees are made.

This is a stateful intermediate operation.

Returns
  • the new stream

public abstract Object[] toArray ()

Returns an array containing the elements of this stream.

This is a terminal operation.

Returns
  • an array containing the elements of this stream

public abstract A[] toArray (IntFunction<A[]> generator)

Returns an array containing the elements of this stream, using the provided generator function to allocate the returned array, as well as any additional arrays that might be required for a partitioned execution or for resizing.

This is a terminal operation.

Parameters
generator a function which produces a new array of the desired type and the provided length
Returns
  • an array containing the elements in this stream
Throws
ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of the array returned from the array generator is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in this stream